Citrine is the yellow to orange variety of Quartz. Natural Citrine is not common; most Citrine on the gem market is produced by heat treating Amethyst and Smoky Quartz. It takes a relatively low temperature to change the color light to golden yellow, and heating to higher temperatures will give the stone a darker yellow to brownish-red color. The name Citrine is derived from the citron fruit, a yellow fruit similar to the lemon. (In fact, citron means “lemon” in several languages.)

Chemical Formula SiO2
Color Yellow, Orange, Brown
Hardness 7
Crystal System Hexagonal
Refractive Index 1.54 – 1.55
SG 2.63 – 2.65
Transparency Transparent
Double Refraction .009
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage Indiscernible
Mineral Class Quartz

Most heat treated Citrine takes on a deep orange or slightly reddish tint. In general, the deeper colored stones are the most valuable, including those with reddish tints. Lightly colored yellow Citrine can occur naturally but is rare; the intense yellow form is usually irradiated and given the trade name of “Lemon Quartz”.

Citrine is a very affordable gemstone, and all its color ranges are not expensive. It is most often confused with orange-yellow Topaz, which is very similar in color and body. Topaz is the more valuable gemstone, and dealers often sell Citrine labeled as Topaz. Several false trade names for Citrine are “Madeira Topaz”, “Gold Topaz”, and “Bahia Topaz”. However, some fine and rare Citrine gemstones have a pure yellow color that is rarely duplicated by golden Topaz.

Citrine can be found in large crystals, and flawless gems of all sizes have been cut. A natural mixture of purple Amethyst and golden Citrine has been coined with name “Ametrine”. (See the Ametrine gemstone page for more details.)


Citrine is cut into all different types of gems, especially oval and rectangular cuts. It is a very popular pendant stone as flawless stones of many carats are not uncommon. It is used as a centerpiece for rings, and also for earrings, bracelets, and necklaces. Lesser quality Citrine combined with white Quartz is also tumbled and used as beads for necklaces and bracelets.


Golden Citrine – Citrine with a golden yellow color.
Lemon Quartz – Lemon Quartz is a light to dark yellow Citrine, distinguished from most Citrine by lacking orange, brown, or reddish tints. More often though it is clear Quartz that is irradiated to produce an intensely colored yellow gemstone. Lemon Quartz has recently experienced a popularity increase in the gemstone market.
Madeira Citrine – Brownish-red to orange-red Citrine.
Palmeria Citrine – Citrine with a bright orange color.
Yellow Citrine – Citrine with a lemon yellow color. May also be called “Lemon Citrine” or “Lemon Quartz”.Virtually all gem Citrine is not naturally colored, but rather colored from heat treatment of Amethyst. Heating Amethyst at about 750 degrees Fahrenheit will produce a mild yellow color, and heating to about 1700 degrees products deep orange to reddish colors. Most heat treated Citrine has a reddish tint. The intense yellow shades often known as Lemon Quartz are usually formed by irradiation of Quartz. Synthetic Citrine gems are also produced using the hydrothermal method, and these are usually in intensely vivid colors.Brazil is the largest producer of Citrine. Other sources are Argentina, Madagascar, Zaire, Namibia, Spain, and Russia.Citrine can be difficult to distinguish from yellow and orange Topaz. Citrine may also be confused with yellow Sapphire, which is usually a purer yellow and much harder, and can also be confused with Golden Beryl known as Heliodor. Some Grossular Garnets may also have a similar color to orange-red Citrine.
Unlike most other gemstones which are of mineral origin, Coral is organic, formed by living organisms. It forms from branching, antler-like structures created from coral polyps in tropical and subtropical ocean waters. When the coral polyps die, the hardened skeleton remains, and this material is what is used as a gemstone. Most coral is white, but nature can create coral in several other colors, including the popular orange to red forms. This Red Coral, or Precious Coral as it is often known by, is the most used gemstone form of Coral. In fact, the color known as coral is derived from the typical pinkish-orange color of many red Coral gemstones.

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